Many preliterate societies used a variety of herbal remedies in attempts to suppress fertility or to induce menstruation. Literary evidence of contraception is found in the work of Egyptian, Classical, and Arabic writers, such as the Greek physicians Disocorides and Soranus first—second centuries c.
Relationships Between Contraception and Abortion: The relationship between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion continues to provoke heated discussion, with some observers arguing that use of abortion decreases as contraceptive prevalence rises and others claiming that increased use of family planning methods causes abortion incidence to rise.
Abortion trends are examined in countries with reliable data on abortion and with contraceptive prevalence information from two points in time showing increases in contraceptive use. The role of changes in fertility in mediating the relationship between abortion and contraception is also explored.
In seven countries—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria, Turkey, Tunisia and Switzerland—abortion incidence declined as prevalence of modern contraceptive use rose. In six others—Cuba, Denmark, Netherlands, the United States, Singapore and the Republic of Korea—levels of abortion and contraceptive use rose simultaneously.
In all six of these countries, however, overall levels of fertility were falling during the period studied. After fertility levels stabilized in several of the countries that had shown simultaneous rises in contraception and abortion, contraceptive use continued to increase and abortion rates fell.
The most clear-cut example of this trend is the Republic of Korea. Rising contraceptive use results in reduced abortion incidence in settings where fertility itself is constant. The parallel rise in abortion and contraception in some countries occurred because increased contraceptive use alone was unable to meet the growing need for fertility regulation in situations where fertility was falling rapidly.
International Family Planning Perspectives,29 1: If fertility and its other determinants sexual exposure, lactation and pathological infertility, for example remain constant, a rise in contraceptive use or in effectiveness of use must lead to a decline in induced abortion and vice versa.
Why, then, does the relationship between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion continue to provoke heated discussion? The explanation for these counterintuitive trends is clear. In such societies, couples are at little or no risk of unwanted pregnancies.
The advent of modern contraception is associated with a destabilization of high or "fatalistic" fertility preferences. Thus, as contraceptive prevalence rises and fertility starts to fall, an increasing proportion of couples want no more children or want an appreciable delay before the next childand exposure to the risk of unintended pregnancy also increases as a result.
In the early and middle phases of fertility transition, adoption and sustained use of effective methods of contraception by couples who wish to postpone or limit childbearing is still far from universal.
Hence, the growing need for contraception may outstrip use itself; 4 thus, the incidence of unintended and unwanted pregnancies rises, fueling increases in unwanted live births and induced abortion. In this scenario, contraceptive use and induced abortion may rise simultaneously.
As fertility decreases toward replacement level two births per womanor even lower, the length of potential exposure to unwanted pregnancies increases further. For instance, in a society in which the average woman is sexually active from ages 20 to 45 and wants two children, approximately 20 of those 25 years will be spent trying to avoid pregnancy.
Demand for abortion falls to zero only in the "perfect contraceptive" population, in which women are protected by absolutely effective contraceptive use at all times, except for the relatively short periods when they want to conceive, are pregnant or are protected by lactational amenorrhea.
The purpose of this article is to summarize what is known about the relationship between abortion and contraception. We start with a description of a recently proposed model of the relationship, 6 and provide empirical illustrations to assess the validity of this model.
We then review trends over time in the incidence of abortion and contraceptive use for specific countries based on published articles.
Finally, we present a comprehensive examination of such trends in all countries thought to possess reliable trend data on abortion and contraceptive use and in which major changes in contraceptive prevalence or effectiveness have been recorded. The latter two time periods constitute waiting time to conception, pregnancy and the postpregnancy period of insusceptibility.
Abortion rates are also related to the prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use, and the probability of aborting unintended pregnancies. The total fertility rate TFR equals the number of births a woman would expect to have over her lifetime under prevailing fertility rates, and it comprises two components:For the purpose of surveillance, a legal induced abortion is defined as an intervention performed by a licensed clinician (e.g., a physician, nurse-midwife, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant) that is intended to terminate an ongoing pregnancy.
-- RELATED TOPICS --Birth Control and Abortion; Stem Cell Research and Abortion; we are still left to ponder the question of birth control. Is contraception really the best way to prevent abortion?
from a historical perspective, contraception at first may have increased the clientele for abortion because it accustoms people to planning. This situation led to a preference for abortion over contraception in some groups, and was associated with high rates of abortion, estimated in at around per 1, women of reproductive age.
14 Increases in contraceptive prevalence and reductions in abortion appear to be related. Abortion rates in the republics examined have declined. An Analysis of Contraception and Abortion From the Ancient World to - Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance by John Riddle, is a book that tries to make sense of the historical records related to.
be most helpful is to forget about modern classifications of birth control like contraception and early abortion and try to understand it as an alternative form of fertility control in itself. Scattered references to fertility regulation exist in many historical records.
11 Himes's work is the prime referral text. 12 Written records A health committee of the League looked at abortion and birth control in , and in League of Nations set up “a special committee of experts to study demographic problems and especially the.