I do one article for Wired per year. My most recent published writings are listed herein chronological order. The book is also a bestseller in China, and I spend a lot of time visiting China to speak about the inevitable and to see what the Chinese have planned for our future.
Now we turn to the war of the Church against Muslims in Europe. This war went on for quite some time in fits barcelona online essay starts — from the time the Muslim Moors arrived in Spain in It took a long time for the Christians to vanquish them.
The first Muslim stronghold to fall was Toledo in ; the last was Granada in As the Christian re-conquest gained momentum, Jews in these newly re-conquered Christians territories began to suffer from increasingly harsher persecutions.
In their blood-thirsty vengeance against the Muslims, the Spanish Christians included the Jews, whom they put in the category of infidels. In 14th century Barcelona, for example, the whole Jewish community was murdered by a rioting mob.
First given shelter barcelona online essay some Christians, these Jews were pressured to convert. Those who did not were refused protection. Netanyahu in his 1,page work, The Origins of the Inquisition, quoting an eyewitness account of the time: Estimates rage between tens of thousands to as many asSee The Origins of the Inquisition, p.
Many of those who converted did so only outwardly, continuing to practice Judaism in secret.
In due time, the Christians caught on to these phony conversions and decided to root out the heretics. We should note, however, that the very first Inquisition actually took place in under orders from Pope Gregory IX to combat a group of French-Christian heretics called "Albigenses.
Not so the Spanish Inquisition which was directed against Jewish "heretics". Unlike its earlier version, the Spanish Inquisition sought to punish Jews who had converted to Christianity but were not really "sincere" in their conversions.
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There is a great deal of irony in this. First you tell people they have to convert or die, then, when they do convert, you decide to kill them anyway because their conversions are not "sincere. Once Jews converted to Christianity they had an open access to the playing field, economically and politically.
And, of course, they prospered mightily. That engendered a lot of hostility from the Christians — a pattern we have seen in Jewish history ever since the enslavement of the Israelites by the Egyptians. Derogatorily, Jewish converts to Christianity were called converses meaning "converts," or worse yet marranos, meaning "pigs.
That was certainly often the case. There were large numbers of Jews who would be outwardly Christian but who would continue to practice Judaism secretly. Until this day, there exist Christian communities with clear Jewish roots dating back to this time.
There are people in the United States in New Mexico and Arizona as well as in South and Central America, who are descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers, and who have strange customs they cannot explain.
For example, even though they are Catholics, on Friday night they go down to the cellar to light candles. They don't know the origins of the custom, but they do it. These people are clearly descended from Jews who pretended to be Christians and yet were practicing Jewish rituals in secret.
The job of the Inquisition was to find such people, torture them until they admitted their "crime," and then kill them. However, here are a few things that most people don't know about them.
The marriage of Ferdinand V, and Isabella I, in unified Spain, in some measure making the final victory over the Muslims possible. Prior to their reign, Spain was a collection of provinces — the two primary being Aragon and Castile.
When Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile, these two provinces were united by marriage into a mighty kingdom. Isabella was a "fervent" Christian and, inshe asked the Pope for permission to set up an Inquisition to weed out heresy in the Christian world.
Ferdinand and Isabella followed that up with a royal decree on September 27, One might think that ridding Christianity of heretics should involve targeting other groups, not just false Jewish converts.
However, the royal decree mentioned no one else. The royal decree explicitly stated that the Inquisition was instituted to search out and punish converts from Judaism who transgressed against Christianity by secretly adhering to Jewish beliefs and performing rites and ceremonies of the Jews.
No other group was mentioned, no other purpose indicated — a fact that in itself suggest a close relationship between the creation of the Inquisition and Jewish life in Spain. Other facts, too, attest to that relationship. Although the first inquisitors got to work a few months after the decree, it was not until — when Tomas de Torquemada, a Spanish Dominican monk, was appointed Grand Inquisitor — that the Inquisition got its bloody reputation.ADULTS ONLY!
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The most conspicuous Minimalist esthetic in Star Trek is the color and use of colored light. But something more subtle is almost as important, and that is the sound.
Star Trek has a noticeable style not just in the visual appearance but in the auditory appearance, as well — the sound of it.
On one hand, there is a sort of Wagnerian musical scoring — sometimes appropriate, sometimes sonic.