# Describe the four levels of measurement nominal ordinal interval and ratio

Attractiveness of packaging b Most of the common statistical methods of analysis require only interval scales in order that they might be used. These are not recounted here because they are so common and can be found in virtually all basic texts on statistics. Ratio scales The highest level of measurement is a ratio scale. Define and distinguish among nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales Identify a scale type Discuss the type of scale used in psychological measurement Give examples of errors that can be made by failing to understand the proper use of measurement scales Types of Scales Before we can conduct a statistical analysis, we need to measure our dependent variable.

Exactly how the measurement is carried out depends on the type of variable involved in the analysis. Different types are measured differently. To measure the time taken to respond to a stimulus, you might use a stop watch. Stop watches are of no use, of course, when it comes to measuring someone's attitude towards a political candidate.

A rating scale is more appropriate in this case with labels like "very favorable," "somewhat favorable," etc. For a dependent variable such as "favorite color," you can simply note the color-word like "red" that the subject offers.

Although procedures for measurement differ in many ways, they can be classified using a few fundamental categories. In a given category, all of the procedures share some properties that are important for you to know about. The categories are called "scale types," or just "scales," and are described in this section. Nominal scales When measuring using a nominal scale, one simply names or categorizes responses.

Gender, handedness, favorite color, and religion are examples of variables measured on a nominal scale. The essential point about nominal scales is that they do not imply any ordering among the responses.

For example, when classifying people according to their favorite color, there is no sense in which green is placed "ahead of" blue.

Responses are merely categorized.

## Why is Level of Measurement Important?

Nominal scales embody the lowest level of measurement. Ordinal scales A researcher wishing to measure consumers' satisfaction with their microwave ovens might ask them to specify their feelings as either "very dissatisfied," "somewhat dissatisfied," "somewhat satisfied," or "very satisfied.

This is what distinguishes ordinal from nominal scales. Unlike nominal scales, ordinal scales allow comparisons of the degree to which two subjects possess the dependent variable. For example, our satisfaction ordering makes it meaningful to assert that one person is more satisfied than another with their microwave ovens.

Such an assertion reflects the first person's use of a verbal label that comes later in the list than the label chosen by the second person.

On the other hand, ordinal scales fail to capture important information that will be present in the other scales we examine. In particular, the difference between two levels of an ordinal scale cannot be assumed to be the same as the difference between two other levels.

In our satisfaction scale, for example, the difference between the responses "very dissatisfied" and "somewhat dissatisfied" is probably not equivalent to the difference between "somewhat dissatisfied" and "somewhat satisfied.

Statisticians express this point by saying that the differences between adjacent scale values do not necessarily represent equal intervals on the underlying scale giving rise to the measurements.Levels of measurement. What a scale actually means and what we can do with it depends on what its numbers represent.

Numbers can be grouped into 4 types or levels: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. The four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio) help to identify what statistical techniques can be performed with our data.

The Levels of Measurement in Statistics Search the site GO. Levels of Measurement. Author(s) Dan Osherson and David M. Lane. Prerequisites. Variables Learning Objectives. Define and distinguish among nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales.

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio are defined as the four fundamental levels of measurement scales that are used to capture data in the form of surveys and questionnaires, each being a . The four levels of measurements 1.

Explain briefly how you would use number properties to describe the four levels of measurements. Nominal; Ordinal; Interval; Ratio; Nominal scale: Define the terms direct measurement and indirect measurement. Describe briefly how you would make profit of indirect measurement in psychological .

Determine which of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) is most appropriate. Voltage measurements of batteries: V, 3 V, V, 6 V, and V. Ratio.

Measurement Levels of Data