Ethanol and Water Essay Heat of Mixing: Ethanol and Water Abstract The temperature change when known amounts of water and ethanol were mixed was determined to see the enthalpy change in an isothermal and isobaric environment - Heat of Mixing: Ethanol and Water Essay introduction. Agreeable data was found compared to similar experiments.
Acids, bases, and pH Video transcript - [Voiceover] So we have two different substances here and just for the sake of an argument, let's assume that they are in their liquid state. Well you probably already recognize this substance right here, each molecule has one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, this is water and we have drawn all neat hydrogen bonds right over there.
Now this substance, at least right now, might be a little less familiar to you, you might recognize you have an O-H group, and then you have a carbon chain, this tells you that this is an alcohol, and what type of alcohol?
Well you have two carbons here, so this is ethyl alcohol or known as ethanol. So this right over here, let me write that down. This is ethanol, which is the primary constituent in the alcohol that people drink, it's also an additive into car fuel, but what I wanna think about here, is if we assume that both of these are in their liquid state and let's say they're hanging out in a cup and we're just at sea level so it's just a standard pressure conditions.
Which one is going to be easier to vaporize or which one is going to have more of it's molecules turning into vapor, or I guess you could say turning into vapor more easily? Well you immediately see that they both have hydrogen bonds, you have this hydrogen bond between the partially negative end and the partial positive ends, hydrogen bond between the partial negative end and the partial positive ends.
The other thing that you notice is that, I guess you could think of it on a per molecule basis, on average you have fewer hydrogen bonds on the ethanol than you have on the water.
Ethanol-- Oxygen is more electronegative, we already know it's more electronegative than hydrogen, it's also more electronegative than carbon, but it's a lot more electronegative than hydrogen. So you have this imbalance here and then on top of that, this carbon, you have a lot more atoms here in which to distribute a partial charge.
There could be a very weak partial charge distributed here amongst the carbons but you have a stronger partial charge on the hydrogen but it's not gonna be strong as what you have here because, once again, you have a larger molecule to distribute especially around this carbon to help dissipate charging.
So you're gonna have weaker partial charges here and they're occurring in fewer places so you have less hydrogen bonding on the ethanol than you have on the water. Let me write that, you have less hydrogen bonding. As we've already talked about, in the liquid state and frankly, in the solid state as well, the hydrogen bonding is what is keeping these things together, that's what's keeping the water together, flowing next to each other.
This is what's keeping the ethanol together. So if you have less hydrogen-- Let me write this down, less hydrogen bonding, it actually has more hydrogen atoms per molecule, but if you have less hydrogen bonding, it's gonna take less energy to break these things free.
Before I even talk about breaking things free and these molecules turning into vapors entering their gas state, let's just think about how that happens.
When we talk about the temperature of a system, we're really just talking about the average kinetic energy. Each molecule, remember they're all bouncing around in all different ways, this one might have, for example, a much higher kinetic energy than this one.
They're all moving in different directions, this one might have a little bit higher, and maybe this one all of a sudden has a really high kinetic energy because it's just been knocked in just the exact right ways and it's enough to overcome both these hydrogen bonds over here and the pressure from the air above it.
Remember this isn't happening in a vacuum, you have air up here, air molecules, I'll just draw the generic, you have different types of things, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etcetera etcetera.
But if I just draw generic air molecules, there's also some pressure from these things bouncing around but this one might have enough, this particular molecule might have enough kinetic energy to overcome the hydrogen bonds and overcome the pressure from the molecules above it to essentially vaporize, to turn into its gas state.
The same thing might be true over here, maybe this is the molecule that has the super high kinetic energy to be able to break free. In that case, it is going to turn into its gaseous state.Heat of Mixing: Ethanol and Water Abstract The temperature change when known amounts of water and ethanol were mixed was determined to see the enthalpy change in .
Ethanol also uses less fuel to heat the water in the calorimeter. Question: Calculate the heats of combustion per mole and per gram for each of the alkanols from the results. Show all working in the calculations in your report.
The results showed that the salt water has the capacity to retain more heat than the fresh water, and the concentration of salt in salt solution also determines the heat retention ability.
Keywords: heat retention, fresh water, salt water, temperature, concentration. G. K. Chesterton’s collection What’s Wrong With The World surprisingly does not open with “this is going to take more than one book.”. In fact, he is quite to-the-point about exactly what he thinks the problem is: Now, to reiterate my title, this is what is wrong.
Essays on heating water with ethanol. Renewable sources, as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ,).
This difference could have affected the change in temperature as with less heated copper, the transfer of heat energy from copper to water is reduced, resulting in a lower temperature change. As shown in Table 2, the difference in the heat energy between the two trials is almost to 50 J.