The remains of these ancient cities are in modern day Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilisation was also named as the Harappan civilisation after Harappathe first of its sites to be excavated in the s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
The Kulli culture of Balochistan, of which more than settlement sites are known, can be regarded as a local variant of the IVC, or a related culture.
The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peruwith rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean.
Recently, Indus sites have been discovered in Indus river valley Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as well. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan while smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as Turkmenistan and in Maharashtra.
Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast,  for example, Balakot,  and on islands, for example, Dholavira. John wrote, "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway". They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Harappa.
Visiting the city, he found it full of hard well-burnt bricks, and, "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted", the city of Harappa was reduced to ballast. Mackayand Marshall.
Bymuch of Mohenjo-daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheelerdirector of the Archaeological Survey of India in Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistanas far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya the river's ancient name was Oxus in current Afghanistanas far east as at AlamgirpurUttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwanin modern-day SuratGujarat, India.
The Indus Valley Civilisation site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. Periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation The cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation had "social hierarchies, their writing system, their large planned cities and their long-distance trade [which] mark them to archaeologists as a full-fledged 'civilisation.
With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures — Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively — the entire Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE.
It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley.Gateway At Harappa: Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization ( BCE; mature period BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Shereen Ratnagar is one of the most important theoreticians of the Indus valley civilization and its archaeological practice. Book reviewer and author, Sudeshna Guha notes in her review of Early State Perspectives, "Through her earlier research, Ratnagar had shown that the political system of statehood possibly provided the Harappan Civilization its distinctive cultural form.".
A history of the Ancient Indus River Valley Civilizations.
Topics. The Indus Valley, Character and Significance.
Map Of Indus Valley. Where was the Indus Valley? The Indus people lived on the banks of the Indus river, the longest river in Pakistan.. The Indus river begins high up in the Himalayan mountains (the tallest mountain. The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage is dedicated to enhancing the worldwide supply of food and fibre for all people by improving water and land management and the productivity of irrigated and drained lands through appropriate management of water, environment and application of irrigation, drainage and flood management techniques.
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