Moreover, set against land-based industry, shipping is, overall, a comparatively minor contributor to marine pollution from human activities.
As a matter of fact, it is a combination of two conventions. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, adopted inwas the first. This convention dealt with marine pollution caused by the discharge of oil, chemicals, and harmful substances in packaged form, sewage, and garbage, and represents the MARPOL 73 portion of the convention.
After adoption, and as it was proceeding to enter into force, several oil tanker mishaps in caught the attention of the Organization. It addressed tanker safety and the prevention of pollution. Provisions of this convention, frequently, work in association with other legal instruments.
Therefore, updates to such provisions may appear elsewhere in this article. The issue of marine pollution was first discussed at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm 1n June of At present, there are six annexes: Prevention of pollution by oilAnnex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substancesAnnex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged formAnnex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from shipsAnnex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from shipsand Annex VI: Intervention Convention This conventionofficially known as the International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, was adopted in response to Torrey Canyon oil tanker disaster inand came into force on May 6, The tanker ran aground while approaching the Isles of Scilly off England and spilledtons of oil into the sea.
At the time of the disaster, public international law was unclear about the rights of the coastal states in protecting their territory from environmental harm caused by approaching oil. This convention affirmed the rights of coastal states to take appropriate actions to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate harm to their coastlines in the event of a disaster similar to Torrey Canyon happening on the high seas.
With the passage of time, injuries caused by substances other than oil were added to the provisions of this convention by the protocol and its amendments.
A snap-shot of the convention presents a good picture of its provisions. London Convention Officially known as the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter and Protocolis one of the earliest conventions to regulate pollution caused by dumping or discharging materials from ships.
It was adopted on 13th November and entered into force on 3oth August Since then, through amendments, it has addressed a range of issues, such as incineration — an age-old pollutant — to the modern-day issue of carbon dioxide sequestration.
Even the issue of placement of artificial reefs is addressed by this convention.
The Convention provides a global framework for international co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution caused by oil. The convention was adopted on 30th November and entered into force on 13th May Parties to the Convention are required to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents, either nationally or in co-operation with other countries, and provide assistance to others in the event of a pollution emergency for which reimbursement provisions are available.
Under this convention, reporting spill incidences to coastal authorities is one of the several requirements of ships.
Prompt notification of pollution incidences enables mobilization of appropriate response and mitigates the damage. A short description acquaints the reader about the convention provision. The Responding to Oil Spills link connects the searcher to various guidelines and reports related to this convention and many hyperlinked sources.
Often, the convention is referred to by its shorter name: The convention was adopted on 15th March, and entered into force on 14th June, It regulates substances other than oil, which, if released into the marine environment, will likely have hazardous effects on human health, living resources, and marine life.
As one of the requirements of this convention, ships transporting noxious or hazardous substances are subjected to preparedness-and-response regimes.
A short description of the convention gives a good introduction  and differentiates it from the HNS convention.
Although the coatings were beneficial to the shipping industry, the leaching of chemical compounds into water caused harm to marine life. The background, and a good summary, of this convention are accessible through the Anti-fouling Systems link.
Ballast water — water from the oceans taken in or discharged by the ships to maintain balance and stability during their voyage — facilitates translocation of marine organisms.
Most of the organisms do not survive the voyage or the new environment at the port of discharge. However, some of these organisms, when discharged along with ballast water at other ports, acquire an invasive character due to the lack of predators or the presence of favorable environmental conditions, and disturb the ecological balance at that location.The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of the Army will hold 11 sessions between September and November to give stakeholders an opportunity to provide recommendations on a revised definition of “waters of the United States. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INSTITUTIONS – International Law and the Protection of the Marine Environment - Howard S.
Schiffman ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) section discusses some of these events and provides a context for the development of the evolution of modern international marine conservation. Students of the Marine & Environmental Law program (MELP) are eligible for prizes, bursaries and scholarships specific to their studies.
Study Marine & Environmental Law Explore our extensive course offerings in both marine and environmental law. List of environmental laws by country.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. Part of a series on Law and the Environment: Environmental Law: Pollution control law Marine Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of .
Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming.
Malgosia Fitzmaurice holds the chair of International Law at Queen Mary, University of London, and is the Nippon Foundation Professor on Marine Environmental Law at the International Maritime Law Author: David Joseph Attard.