Although these borders were not final and would undergo revisions, most notably during the Napoleonic wars and after the Congress of Vienna, Polish independence would not return until From the time of the partitions onward, the story of Polish Jewry, like the story of Poland itself, became three separate yet often similar stories of adjustment, rejection, and cooperation between the populations of the lands of partitioned Poland and the ruling empires. The political and economic fates of these territories would depend on decisions made in Vienna, Berlin, and Saint Petersburgdecisions made with wider imperial interests in mind, and not necessarily those of the former Polish territories.
This situation is becoming somewhat unusual in an international context.
Currently there around countries and territories — including nearly all developed nations — that have systems in place to allow their emigrants to vote.
And the number is growing. Even countries with very high rates of emigration, such as Italy, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico have recently allowed their expats to vote.
Since this was written inthere has been an accelerating trend toward allowing overseas citizens to vote - the number would now be substantially higher Politics and emigration paper based on the estimate from the study. Sixty-five of these countries allow for external voting for everyone, while about 25 place restrictions on it, based on such factors as to whether they intend to return permanently or how long they have been away.
Citizens in the US can vote no matter how long they stay away, while citizens of Britain are disqualified after fifteen years away. Some countries, like France, reserve seats in their parliaments for citizens who live abroad, while others vote in the constituency in which they used to live.
Other countries only allow for votes in national or presidential elections. Some countries require their emigrants to return home to cast ballots, while others send out postal ballots, and others organise for citizens to vote in person at consulates or embassies. India, South Africa, El Salvador, Hungary have all since announced voting rights for their emigrants.
Overseas citizens from Zimbabwe are campaigning for the right to vote and a Nepalese emigrant is taking his country to court over the issue.
Members of the armed forces and the diplomatic services are able to vote in Dail elections, while only NUI and Trinity graduates can vote in the Seanad. Beyond these exceptions, only those who are ordinarily resident may vote.
Many people within Ireland are at first leery of allowing emigrants to vote, pointing out that, with such a high number of emigrants abroad, Ireland would be overwhelmed. This argument is weakened by the numerous news sources available on radio and the Internet.
Some people object to emigrant voting because they fear that voters who live in Ireland would be outnumbered by the number of people who would be eligible to vote from abroad — but most proponents of emigrant voting limit their proposals to only Irish-born people living abroad there are just over 1 million of them.
International experience would suggest that only a small proportion of those would be interested in voting. Studies in other countries that allow their emigrants to vote show that emigrants do not generally vote in a way that is radically different than those at home.
Potential solutions The fact is that there is a wide variety of solutions for the emigrant voting conundrum, and every country has dealt with the issue in a different way. While a study found that 65 countries allowed external voting for all, 26 countries placed restrictions on which of their expats could vote, making the right conditional on the length of time they have been away, their intent to return, or their location.
A few countries disqualify citizens from voting after a certain period of time — the UK allows expats to vote only for the first 15 years away, for example.
Some nations restrict voting to only certain types of elections — the most commonly allowed voting is for national and presidential elections. It is less common to allow emigrants to cast their ballots in local and regional elections, or for referendums.
Most nations require that their emigrants vote in the last constituency where they lived, while others vote for specific emigrant representatives. Nine countries, including France, Italy and Portugal, reserve seats in their parliaments for those abroad.Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more.
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