Assess the impact of three technologies that changed the face of the music industry. Determine the influences and characteristics of each genre of popular music. Describe the evolution of pop music throughout the last century.
Download powerpoint Figure 6. The British Invasion in the American revolution of The population medians of all four PCs decrease, and these decreases begin well before the start of the British Invasion BI in lateimplying that BI acts cannot be solely responsible for the changes in musical style evident at the time.
For each PC, the two topics that load most strongly are indicated, with sign of correlation—high, red to low, blue—indicated electronic supplementary material, figure S2. Discussion and Conclusion Our findings provide a quantitative picture of the evolution of popular music in the USA over the course of 50 years.
As such, they form the basis for the scientific study of musical change. Those who wish to make claims about how and when popular music changed can no longer appeal to anecdote, connoisseurship and theory unadorned by data.
Similarly, recent work has shown that it is possible to identify discrete stylistic changes in the history of Western classical music by clustering on motifs extracted from a corpus of written scores [ 29 ].
Insofar that our approach is based on audio, it can also be applied to music for which no scores exist, including that from pre-Modern cultures [ 193738 ].
More generally, music is a natural starting point for the study of stylistic evolution because it is not only a universal human cultural trait [ 40 ] but also measurable, largely determined by form, and available in a relatively standardized format digital recordings.
Our study is limited in several ways. First, it is limited by the features studied. Our measures must capture only a fraction of the phenotypic complexity of even the simplest song; other measures may give different results.
However, the finding that our classifications are supported by listener genre-tags gives us some confidence that we have captured an important part of the perceptible variance of our sample. Second, in confining our study to the Hot—, we have only sampled a small fraction of the new singles released in the USA; a complete picture would require compiling a database of several million songs, which in itself is a challenge [ 41 ].
Given that the Hot is certainly a biased subset of these songs, our conclusions cannot be extended to the population of all releases.
We have not addressed the causes of the dynamics that we detect. Like any cultural artefact—and any living organism—music is the result of a variational-selection process [ 16 — 19 ].
In evolutionary biology, causal explanations of organismal diversity appeal to intrinsic constraints developmental or geneticecological factors competition among individuals or lineages and stochastic events e.
By analogy, a causal account of the evolution of music must ultimately contain an account of how musicians imitate, and modify, existing music when creating new songs, that is, an account of the mode of inheritance, the production of musical novelty and its constraints.
The first of these—inheritance and its constraints—is obscure [ 4647 ]; the second—selection—less so. The selective forces acting upon new songs are at least partly captured by their rise and fall through the ranks of the charts.
Many anecdotal histories of music attempt to explain these dynamics. A general, multilevel, selection theory, not restricted to Mendelian inheritance, should provide a means for such hypotheses to be tested [ 49 — 51 ]. Finally, we note that the statistical tools used in this study are quite general.
LDA can be used to study the evolving structure of many kinds of assemblages; Foote Novelty can be used to detect rate discontinuities in temporal sequences of distances based on many kinds of phenotypes.
Such tools, and the existence of large digital corpora of cultural artefacts—texts, music, images, computer-aided design CAD files—now permits the evolutionary analysis of many dimensions of modern culture.
We anticipate that the study of cultural trends based upon such datasets will soon constrain and inspire theories about the evolution of culture just as the fossil record has for the evolution of life [ 5253 ]. Data accessibility All methods and supplementary figures and tables are available in the electronic supplementary material.
Extensive data, including song titles, artists, topic frequencies and tags are available from the Figshare repository: All authors gave final approval for publication. Conflict of interests We have no competing interests. Received February 17, Accepted April 9, The History of African American Music.
ADAPTED FROM ESSAYS BY LORI BROOKS, BEREA COLLEGE, AND CYNTHIA YOUNG. From the lyrical cries of black street vendors in eighteenth-century Philadelphia to the infectious dance rhythms of the Motown sound, African American music has been heard at all times and in every corner of America.
Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music usually refers . Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage During the few years of the 50s, when high-octane rock & roll ruled unchecked, the possibilities seemed limitless.
s Rock and Roll: A Decade of. Research a technological development that took place during this time that influenced pop music—for example, the development of the electric guitar and its influence on rock and roll. Consider how this development influenced trends within the industry.
Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music usually refers to a specific musical genre within popular music.
The development of Pop music has been influenced by many other genres of pop music such as harmonies, instrumentation and tempo s During the s rock and roll dominated the first half of the decade, with previous influences from the s.