On March 8, he left the Nation of Islam. Malcolm returned to New York the following month to create the OAAU and on June 28 gave his first public address on behalf of the new organization at the Audubon Ballroom in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan. That address appears below. As many of you know, last March when it was announced that I was no longer in the Black Muslim movement, it was pointed out that it was my intention to work among the 22 million non-Muslim Afro-Americans and to try and form some type of organization, or create a situation where the young people — our young people, the students and others — could study the problems of our people for a period of time and then come up with a new analysis and give us some new ideas and some new suggestions as to how to approach a problem that too many other people have been playing around with for too long.
Unlike many other African American leaders of this time, who supported nonviolent methods, Malcolm X believed in using more aggressive measures in the fight for civil rights.
His father, a Baptist minister, was an outspoken follower of Marcus Garvey —the black nationalist leader.
Garvey supported a "back-to-Africa" movement for African Americans. They moved from Omaha, Nebraska, after being threatened by the Ku Klux Klan, a group that believes that white people are superior to all other races. While living in an all-white neighborhood in Michigan their house was burned.
When Malcolm was six years old, his father was mysteriously murdered. The black community was convinced that white people had committed the crime. By the s the nation had fallen into the Great Depression, a decade-long period of great economic hardship. For a time his mother and her eight children lived on public welfare.
When his mother became mentally ill, Malcolm was sent to a foster home. His mother remained in a mental institution for about twenty-six years.
The children were divided among several families, and Malcolm lived in various state institutions and boardinghouses. At thirteen Malcolm was charged with delinquency behaving in a way that is against the law and was sent to a juvenile detention home a place where young people are held in custody.
He dropped out of school at the age of fifteen. A criminal life Living with his sister in Boston, Massachusetts, Malcolm worked as a shoeshine boy, a busboy, and a waiter. In Boston Malcolm began visiting the black ghetto an area of a city where a minority lives of Roxbury. He began wearing flashy clothing and jumped into a criminal life that included gambling, selling drugs, and burglary.
He adapted well to the New York City street life and rose quickly in the criminal world.
Malcolm became known as Detroit Red, for his red shock of hair. When the police uncovered his criminal activities, Malcolm returned to Boston. Reformed in prison Inat the age of twenty, Malcolm was sentenced to ten years in prison for burglary.
While in prison he began to transform his life. He began reading books on history, philosophy, and religion. In prison his brother Reginald visited him and told Malcolm about the Black Muslims.
The leader of the group was Elijah Muhammad — These teachings taught that the white man is evil and doomed by Allah to destruction.
Also, the teachings stressed that the best course for black people is to separate themselves from Western, white civilization—culturally, politically, physically, and psychologically.
The Black Muslim teachings also prohibited personal habits such as smoking, drinking, and the eating of pork. In addition Malcolm X. There he was accepted into the movement and given the name of Malcolm X. Malcolm believed the "X" represented his "slave" name that was forever lost after being raised in a mainly white nation.
Malcolm X became assistant minister of the Detroit Mosque, or Muslim house of worship. The following year he returned to Chicago to study personally under Muhammad, and shortly thereafter was sent to organize a mosque in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
In he went to lead the mosque in Harlem. As the voice of the organization he was a speech-writer, a philosopher, and an inspiring speaker who was often quoted by the media.
At this time in the United States there was a major movement for racial integration, or bringing the races together in peace.Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, , in Omaha, Nebraska.
His father, a Baptist minister, was an outspoken follower of Marcus Garvey (–), the black nationalist leader. (A nationalist is a person who promotes one nation's culture and interests over all others.) Garvey supported.
Apr 02, · For two decades, the Columbia University professor Manning Marable focused on the task he considered his life’s work: redefining the legacy of Malcolm X. “Malcolm X is etched in the American imagination—and the American psyche—in the particular and unyielding terms of radical and militant Marable brings a lifetime of study to this biography, which is the crowning achievement of a magnificent career.”Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard University/5().
Malcolm X: Life and Death Malcolm X, originally Malcolm Little, was born in Omaha, Nebraska. After moving to the Midwest with his family at a.
Two analysts familiar with the work and career of the late civil rights activist Malcolm X spoke on the affect of Malcolm X on the civil rights movement and American society.
Scenes from the Malcolm X’s life changed dramatically in the first six months of On March 8, he left the Nation of Islam. In May he toured West Africa and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, returning as El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.