Columbus, The Indians, and Human Progress Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat.
Army Sicily Campaign ribbon Prelude to War Nobody ever commended George Patton for his tact, but he was one of the best "motivational speakers" of his day. The hapless Axis soldiers who found themselves in Sicily in the hot Summer of had only a vague idea of what awaited them, and it was far worse than what anybody - even Patton - could put into words.
Ill-advised and disastrous it may have been, but Italy's entry into the Second World War was no accident, nor did it reflect exclusively Fascist policies, though these were certainly involved. It was prompted by an expansionist foreign policy rooted in earlier nationalist aspirations to establish an "Italian Empire" at the turn of the century, thus it was hoped aiding the economy and making Italy a "great power" on a par with Russia, Germany, France and Great Britain.
Italy had seized some east African territories beginning in the s only to be checked by Ethiopian forces at the Battle of Adwa in - a landmark defeat for a European colonial power.
Inthe Italians occupied Libyaformerly part of the fading Ottoman Empire, following unexpectedly heavy fighting against a ferocious enemy. The Italian occupiers subsequently undertook a civilian massacre.
This action shocked even powers such as Great Britain and France, whose own colonial exploits often led to high civilian casualties. There's no escaping the fact that as colonialists the Italians were inept, and no great power took the "new" nation united only in the s seriously, either militarily or politically.
The First World War and its immediate aftermath led to acquisition of new territories in what is now northeastern Italy, but to this day the Germanic Tiroleans of "Trentino-Alto Adige" and the Slovenians of Trieste hardly consider themselves "Italians.
Initially, the Sicilian secessionist movement sought restoration of the exiled House of Bourbon of Naples ousted in Decades later, with the increasing poverty of a region which until the s had been more prosperous than most northern regions now industrializedthe more radical Sicilian separatists desired full independence.
In reality, Sicily was one of the least Fascist, and least nationalist, regions of the Kingdom of Italy. There was another subtle force at work.
In view of widespread poverty, thousands of Sicilians emigrated in search of better lives abroad between and In the less populated northern regions of Lombardy and Piedmont, which by were at least marginally wealthier than Sicily, there was less emigration.
This meant that many Sicilians, having close relatives in the United States some of whom sent money to their families in Sicilydid not readily accept the Fascist propaganda that painted the Americans as barbaric animals.
Fascism itself offered the Italians a mixed bag of realities, both good and bad, and it was less successful in the South than elsewhere. Despite a few pragmatic and beneficial social programs public housing projects, old-age and widows' pensions come to mind initially praised by the British and Americans alike, Fascism rapidly evolved from a vaguely socialist, populist --if authoritarian-- movement in to a full-fledged dictatorship by Though not intrinsically monarchist, Fascism propped up the existing order of social classes through a nationalist philosophy embraced by many as a reaction against Communism, perceived as a worse evil.
Protectionist policies shielding much of the economy from international influences created a certain false prosperity but illiteracy and poverty, while alleviated somewhat by an improved public education system, remained high. Italian society, despite a slightly improved industrial base, was still essentially agrarian, with more than sixty percent of the population involved in agricultural-related fields or minor trades.
In retrospect, however, the police state of the s, with its repression and censorship, was generally acceptable to many Italians because, to the ordinary citizen, it was not much different from the state that existed twenty years earlier, particularly in Sicily.
The intellectual and creative classes suffered most and, tragically, these represented a tiny minority in a nation of what seemed to consist primarily of semi-literate "peasants" and drones.
Even before Fascism, the Kingdom of Italy, with its shadowy democracy and theoretical constitutional liberties, could not be said to have been a free or democratic state --or even a very prosperous one.
Under Fascism, it remained a backward nation where to cite a few examples senators were appointees, women could not vote, the study of foreign languages was prohibited in public schools, public policy and even elections were rigged, severe nutritional diseases and malaria raged and millions still sought to emigrate for lack of opportunity.
In its cultic cronyism, curbing of free expression and cruel treatment of human rights, the observable effects of Fascism and the Nazism inspired by it were not much different from those of Soviet-style communism.
At the outbreak of war, the most obvious difference, at least to those in Allied nations, was that the Russians were on the Anglo-American side while the Italians were not.
Until Italy's declaration of war against the United States following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, a number of pro-Fascist organizations thrived in cities such as New York, where Mayor La Guardia had spoken against them.
Fascist activity of this kind ceased following the declaration of war, and indeed a number of Italian citizens active in such associations in the United States were arrested, to be interned for the duration of the war.
In the United Kingdom, most adult Italian male citizens were arrested and imprisoned when Italy declared war against that nation.This is where the Badass Crew is taken to the next logical step and turned into an entire army.
The Badass Army is made of % badasses and there is absolutely nothing that can stop them short of overwhelming numbers or an even more badass Badass Army.
There is not a single soldier who can not hold their own in a fight. Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient attheheels.comm is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions.
Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable. Commanding , troops, Mikhail N. Tukhachevsky was said to be the Red Army's most brilliant general. If the newly resurrected Polish nation was to survive, .
Prelude to War. Nobody ever commended George Patton for his tact, but he was one of the best "motivational speakers" of his day. The hapless Axis soldiers who found themselves in Sicily in the hot Summer of had only a vague idea of what awaited them, and it was far worse than what anybody - even Patton - could put into words.
ENTERTAINMENT, POLITICS, AND THE SOUL: LESSONS OF THE ROMAN GAMES (PART TWO) PART ONE. Introduction. The Ludi and the Munera: Public and Private Games. The Battle of Nicopolis (Bulgarian: Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Turkish: Niğbolu Savaşı, Hungarian: Nikápolyi csata, Romanian: Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian.